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  • Economy of EgyptDatum19.04.2024 15:49
    Thema von GibsonJack im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    Egypt is considered to be a developing nation. The developmental stage of a nation is determined by a number of factors including, but not limited to, economic prosperity, life expectancy, income equality, and quality of life. As a developing nation, Egypt may not be able to offer consistent social services to its citizens. These social services may include things like public education, reliable healthcare, and law enforcement. Citizens of developing nations may have lower life expectancies than citizens of developed nations. Each year, Egypt exports around $24.81 billion and imports roughly $59.22 billion. 12.1% of population in the country are unemployed. The total number of unemployed people in Egypt is 12,024,465. In Egypt, 25.2% of the population lives below the poverty line. The percentage of citizens living below the poverty line in Egypt is fairly high, but is not reason for complete concern with regard to investments. Potential financial backers should look at other economic markers, including GDP, urbanization rate, and strength of currency, before making any decisions regarding investments. Government expenditure on education is 3.8% of GDP. The Gini Index of the country is 30.8. Egypt is experiencing good equality. The majority of citizens in Egypt fall within a narrow range of income, although some cases may show significant differences. Egypt has a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.682. Egypt has an upper medium HDI score. This indicates that the majority of citizens will be able to attain a desirable life, though some citizens will not be able to achieve high living standards. The Global Peace Index (GPI) for Egypt is 2.382. The strength of legal rights index for Egypt is 2. Overall, it is considered to be rather weak - bankrupcy and collateral laws are unable to protect the rights of borrowers and lenders in case of credit-related complications; credit information, if any at all, is scarce and hardly accessible.

    The currency of Egypt is Egyptian pound. The plural form of the word Egyptian pound is pounds. The symbol used for this currency is E£, and it is abbreviated as EGP. The Egyptian pound is divided into Piastre; there are 100 in one pound.

    Credit rating
    The depth of credit information index for Egypt is 8, which means that information is mostly sufficient and quite detailed; accessibility is not a problem. According to the S&P credit-rating agency, Egypt has a credit rating score of B-, and the prospects of this rating are positive. According to the Fitch credit-rating agency, Egypt has a credit rating score of B, and the prospects of this rating are stable. According to the Moody's credit-rating agency, Egypt has a credit rating score of B3, and the prospects of this rating are stable.

    Central bank
    The prime lending rate of Egypt's commercial banks is 11.8. In Egypt, the institution that manages the state's currency, money supply, and interest rates is called Central Bank of Egypt. Locally, the central bank of Egypt is called البنك المركزي المصري. The average deposit interest rate offered by local banks in Egypt is 6.9%.

    Public debt
    Egypt has a government debt of 45% of the country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), as assessed in 2014.

    Tax information
    The corporate tax in Egypt is set at 25%. Personal income tax ranges from 10% to 20%, depending on your specific situation and income level. VAT in Egypt is 10%.

  • General partnershipsDatum07.02.2024 18:04
    Thema von GibsonJack im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    A general partnership is a type of legal structure where two or more individuals co-operate or form an association in order to establish a business, for the purpose of making a profit as a group. The incorporation process is also known as company formation. Profits are usually distributed equally between the partners, who are also equally personally liable for the entire company. However, the general partnership dissolves if one of the partners decides to withdraw from the shared business.

    Even though general partnerships offer some tax exemptions, it should be pointed out that they have one major disadvantage in terms of personal liability. In a general partnership, the actions of one partner are automatically considered to be endorsed by the others, making each partner personally liable for the others’ actions. The liability of partners in a general partnership can be summed up as follows:

    Each partner is responsible for his or her own actions.
    Each partner is responsible for the actions of all other partners.
    Each partner is responsible for the actions of the partnership’s employees.
    Consequently, we would strongly recommend that you think twice and perform due diligence on your potential business partner(s). A good alternative to a general partnership may be a limited partnership or a limited liability partnership.

    Owners of a general partnership
    The owners of a general partnership are called 'the general partners', and they hold unlimited liability for the company. They are deemed to be partners after the agreement to incorporate a company has been finalised. Each partner has the power to conduct business on behalf of the company without permission or authorisation from the other general partners. General partners must always take tax planning into consideration, and it is highly advisable that they do not take any substantial risks on behalf of the company, since their personal assets would be put at risk.

    Functions of a general partnership
    General partnerships are formed for various reasons and they have certain legal implications, for example for company management procedures, profit-sharing, responsibility for partners’ debts, etc. Profits are always shared equally among all of the company’s partners, and they have absolute individual authority to manage and run the business. Moreover, all partners are considered to be liable if one or more of them have dealings with a third party, as any one partner can enter into and perform agreements on behalf of the partnership as a whole.

    Benefits of a general partnership
    Like any other legal entity, general partnerships have their pros and cons. However, general partnerships hold several benefits that can speed up the company formation process as well as increasing the efficiency and longevity of the business. Perhaps the biggest advantages of general partnerships are simplified taxes and reduced paperwork. All profits and losses are handled by the partners, and forming a general partnership requires less time and less paperwork than other types of company. The paperwork is usually very simple and company formation should be completed within the jurisdiction in which the agreement was issued.

    General vs limited partnerships
    As discussed above, a general partnership is a legal entity formed by agreement between two or more partners for the purposes of company formation. A limited partnership is another legal structure, which has several similarities to a general partnership but various differences as well. Partners in both general partnerships and limited partnerships have total freedom in terms of managing their company, and the same tax benefits. However, the liability imposed by a general partnership is usually very risky, as responsibility is unlimited, while limited partnerships offer a certain degree of protection for the partners’ personal assets by limiting their personal liability to the value of their interest in the business.

  • Thema von GibsonJack im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    The legal structure of your business is among the most important factors that will have a great impact on you and your company throughout its existence. Therefore it is crucial to carefully consider all pros and cons before the incorporation of the company as your choice of the business structure will have a great impact on how you run the business, how you pay taxes and who controls your company. The key is to understand which legal type of entity gives your business the biggest advantages on your journey to achieve the organizational as well as personal goals. Generally, there are four major factors to consider before the start-up process of the company: limitation of personal liability, taxes, ease of share transferability and admission of the new owners and finally – investor expectations.

    When incorporating a business in Belgium, there are numerous options for you to choose in terms of the legal structure of your company. Various types of business structures in Belgium are suited for a wide range of business needs. Both – domestic and foreign – investors are able to choose the legal structure that complies best with requirements of a particular business. Additionally, those who decide to register a company in Belgium can enjoy a relatively speedy and straightforward procedure.

    Belgium has a wide range of possible types of companies, each with its own advantages and characteristics. While certain business types are more suitable for large companies, other types are developed to meet the needs of small and medium sized companies. Generally, small and medium businesses can benefit from choosing simpler legal form of a business, especially if the company is not planning to be listed on the stock exchange. In order to make the correct choice, entrepreneurs should consider the amount of capital they are planning to invest in the early stage of the business and the shareholders’ obligations associated with each type of business.

    Private Limited Liability Company (BVBA/SPRL)
    This type of structure is one of the most popular legal entities and is generally used for small and medium businesses that are held privately. Before choosing this type of business structure, investors should take into account that there are certain aspects that make it less flexible in comparison to Public Limited Liability Company. For example, it is not possible to issue neither convertible bonds nor profit certificates, it is also impossible to pay interim dividends. Generally, the main benefits of PLLC are as below:

    Only two persons required to incorporate it (there is also an exception, when just one person is needed);
    Owners of the company are only responsible for the amount that they have actually contributed;
    Relatively small minimum capital.
    The required minimum capital is 18,550 EUR; it must be paid in by the founders of the company, who may be private persons or companies, Belgian citizens or non-citizens as well as residents or non-residents of the country. Each issued share needs to be at least 20% paid in before incorporation and the minimum amount is 6,200 EUR. In case a company has only one founder, at least 12,400 EUR needs to be paid in. All shares of this company are nominative and they have to be registered in the shareholders’ register. There are certain restrictions regarding the share transfer.

    Public Limited Liability Company (NV/SA)
    This type of business is generally selected for larger companies as the minimum capital is significantly higher than for the Private Limited Liability Company. It is also beneficial to choose this type of structure for a business which requires a large amount of capital, as the company will be able to attract external capital. The minimum capital is at least 61,500 EUR and upon incorporation, at least 25% of each share needs to be paid in with a minimum total amount of 61,500 EUR.

    Unlike PLLC, the shareholders of Public Limited Liability Company do not play a significant role as at least three directors are required to be appointed to manage the company. If there are only one or two shareholders, it is sufficient to appoint only two directors. If a company is appointed to be a director, according to Belgian corporate law, a permanent representative needs to be appointed.

    Following documents and other information are required upon incorporation of Public and Private Limited Liability Companies:

    Full details of the founders’ identities;
    A financial plan for the first two years;
    Bank certificate approving the capital;
    Founders’ powers of attorney;
    Letter of acceptance from the directors;
    Passport copies of the of the directors;
    Articles of Association;
    Act of incorporation;
    Minutes of the first general meeting to appoint directors;
    Minutes of the first board meeting for certain business decisions;
    Registration with the tax administration;
    Registration with the trade registry or filing with the commercial court;
    Publication in the Official Journal;
    Registration with the social security and VAT administrations.
    Limited Partnership (SCS/GCV)
    Limited Partnerships have two types of partners with different legal regimes. General partners are jointly responsible for the partnership’s liabilities. General partners are also the ones who manage the company. Meanwhile, limited partners are only responsible for the capital they have contributed towards the Limited Partnership. They also do not acquire a trader’s status and are not involved in the management of the business. There is no requirement for a minimum capital to incorporate a Limited Partnership and also less administrative formalities are required. It still remains less common due to the full liability of general partners.

    Other types of business structures in Belgium include:

    Cooperative with unlimited liability (SCRI/CVOA);
    Cooperative with limited liability (SC/SCRL – CV/CVBA);
    General Partnership (SNC/VOF);
    Sole Proprietorship.

  • Bank introduction servicesDatum05.07.2023 13:20
    Thema von GibsonJack im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    Bank introduction, as the name suggests, is the process of introducing potential clients to the most suitable bank for their needs. The aim is to support the client and increase his or her chances of finding a suitable bank account, and so it is important to understand which bank would be the most suitable service provider for the client by getting to know his or her business profile and financial standing or personal background, as well as any personal needs and preferences. Some banks require a substantial minimum account balance, while others prefer business customers who are actively trading or start-ups. Some banks cater to the needs of high-net-worth clients, offering a set of wealth management, private banking and investment services.

    The main activities performed by bank introduction agents are:

    Analysing and understanding the needs and preferences of the client and his or her business
    Recommending a bank that best matches the needs of the client
    Providing the client with all the necessary application forms, contracts and other documents and helping him or her fill them out correctly
    Evaluating whether the client has successfully completed all due diligence to the satisfaction of the bank's compliance officers, as well as advising on anything else that might be necessary for a smooth application process
    Arranging a meeting between the client and the customer service manager in the bank, if necessary before opening an account, or arranging the safe delivery of paperwork to the bank if no physical meeting is required

  • Top destination for global investmentsDatum24.06.2023 12:26
    Thema von GibsonJack im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    Every year over USD 1 trillion is distributed worldwide in the form of foreign direct investment. Investments by foreign investors and entrepreneurs are of significant value to the country and are seen as a sign of a healthy economic, political and legal environment. When it comes to investing your money, some countries are simply better than others. It depends on numerous factors such as the country's overall economy and growth prospects, political stability, taxation and the overall legal system, the complexity of starting a business, opening an account and the workforce.

    In this article, we summarize three jurisdictions in terms of benefits and other features crucial to foreign investors. These countries have already proven their ability to attract multinationals and other investments, but when it comes to choosing the right place to invest, each country is different and might be better than others in one or more factors.

    The first country to be analyzed is Singapore, which ranks 2nd among the best countries for investment and 15th among the best countries in the world in the US News Best Countries Ranking developed in cooperation with its international partners .

    Located in Southeast Asia, Singapore is a bustling metropolis and home to one of the busiest ports in the world. As one of Asia's four economic tigers, the country has experienced impressive growth in recent years thanks to efficient production and manufacturing processes and innovations in the pharmaceutical and electronics industries. High GDP per capita and low unemployment make Singapore one of the wealthiest countries in the world.

    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong is a special administrative region of China. While Hong Kong is often considered as a separate entity from China, it is not a country and therefore enters all lists and rankings under the name of China. China takes 26th place among best countries to invest in and 20th place among best countries in general.

    Hong Kong’s legal system is characterised by the strict adherence to principles and the rule of law. It operates a free trade economic system and promotes minimal government interference in most sections of the economy. This reflects on the small number of tariffs and duties on traded goods and therefore it is a better place for investments than other parts of China.
    Foreign investments are attracted by promoting a favourable investment climate with low taxes, few restrictions and additional incentives to encourage investments. Corporate profits tax rate is 16.5% with a possibility to waive 75% of the tax. There is no tax levied on dividends.
    Company incorporation is a simple and fast-forward process. All applications for company incorporation also include an application for the business registry. The application can be submitted online and the processing generally takes one hour (as opposed to four days if the application is submitted in hard copy).

    Due to its impressive growth and increasing immigration, Singapore attracts the best professionals to its workforce. The country offers cultural diversity and, with four official languages, is an important gateway for international trade.
    The corporate tax rate is 17%, but it can be reduced by taking advantage of numerous government subsidies, incentives, and other programs.
    Singapore's legal system is known for its integrity, efficiency and fairness, making the country better than many as a place to start and operate a business. The World Bank Group has recognized Singapore's political and regulatory environment as the most business-friendly in the world.
    Other factors:
    Least Corrupt Country in Asia;
    Best IP protection in Asia;
    Most popular country for arbitration in Asia.

    United Arab Emirates
    The United Arab Emirates or UAE is listed as the 22nd best country in the world and is not mentioned among the best countries for investment according to the above ranking.

    Before the discovery of oil in the mid-20th century, the UAE's economy was mainly based on fishing and the pearling industry. The country experienced rapid growth and general transformation along with the start of oil exports in the 1960s. Today the country's GDP can be compared to that of leading European countries and the World Economic Forum has named the UAE the most competitive place in the Arab world.

    When incorporating a company in the United Arab Emirates, foreign investors can choose between offshore or onshore registration, whichever is more suitable for the type of company and the activities planned. Onshore registration means that the investor establishes a business presence on the UAE mainland. Offshore registration usually refers to a business presence in one of the UAE's free trade zones.
    The UAE does not levy corporate income tax at the federal level. However, most Emirates have some corporate income taxation and can even reach 55% for certain industries. In practice, corporate income tax is mainly levied on gas and oil companies and branches of foreign banks.
    Other factors:
    The UAE is among the most liberal places in the Gulf with a legal system that allows freedom of religion;
    No sales tax or VAT but with plans to introduce it in the future;
    In addition to traditional banking, Islamic (or Sharia-compliant) banking has seen tremendous growth in recent times.

  • Liberties and freedom in IsraelDatum07.04.2023 13:53
    Thema von GibsonJack im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    In terms of political and civil liberties, Israel is 1. The citizens of Israel experience total freedom. The majority of countries where citizens enjoy wide civil liberties and political liberties are representative democracies, where officials are directly elected by the citizens to advocate for their needs and wants. Free countries are often backed by healthy economies and well-functioning governments. The companies of Israel are 2 in terms of economic freedom. Citizens in Israel are considered to be largely free in their economic decisions. While the government exercises some control over trade, citizens can still control their own finances and property. Corruption may exist, but it does not greatly impede economic growth or freedom. In terms of journalistic freedom, the Israeli media is in a 3. In Israel, journalists are generally allowed to express a variety of opinions and there are a range of news sources. However, the government can criticize or disapprove of certain subjects or publications. This is considered satisfactory.

  • Swiss banking sector overview Datum23.12.2022 17:44
    Thema von GibsonJack im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    Switzerland is world famous for its banks and thriving economy, with a GDP higher than most Western European countries. The price of the Swiss franc (CHF) was also quite stable compared to other currencies. In 2009, the financial sector in Switzerland contributed around 11.6% to the total gross domestic product and employed almost 195,000 people (136,000 of them in the banking sector specifically), which corresponds to almost 6% of the total Swiss labor force. In addition, Swiss banks employ around 103,000 people abroad.

    Today, approximately thirty-three percent of all the world's funds are held outside the home country (also known as offshore investments), held by Swiss banks and financial institutions. In 2001, Swiss banks managed a total of 2.6 trillion US dollars in net assets.

    Data protection declaration of the Swiss banks
    The Banking Act of 1934 made it a criminal offense for a Swiss bank to disclose information about an account holder. The Swiss bank secrecy guarantees the secrecy of the bank customers. The anonymity guaranteed by Swiss law is in its essence similar to a level of confidentiality protection between doctors and patients or lawyers and their clients.

    The Swiss authorities recognize the right to secrecy as a core principle to be upheld by any democratic state. While confidentiality is guaranteed, all bank accounts are linked to an identified individual, also known as the ultimate beneficiary. It should also be noted that even the principle of banking secrecy is not absolute per se: a prosecutor or a judge has the power to issue an executive order granting the right to grant court-enforced access to bank details required for conduct an investigation are required.

    However, everything changed on May 27, 2015, when Swiss authorities signed an agreement with EU officials. The latter agreement brought the banking practices of Swiss banks and financial institutions into line with common European requirements and standards, ending the data protection directive that EU-based clients of Swiss banks had been enjoying lately. According to the provision of the agreement, both parties involved, Switzerland and the member states of the European Union, will automatically exchange information on each other's bank accounts from 2018 onwards.

    wealth management industry in Switzerland
    Wealth management is a rapidly developing business in Switzerland. To ensure that the Swiss financial center actually prospers and benefits from this development, several local banking and financial associations have developed the Asset Management Platform Switzerland. This platform fulfills the tasks previously performed by the Asset Management Initiative, which was launched back in 2012. The ultimate goal of the platform is to make Switzerland an attractive destination for wealth management purposes on a global scale.

    Asset management in Switzerland is to be developed into one of the leading forces in the Swiss financial center. The wealth management industry is recognized worldwide for a high level of trust and quality. The aforementioned platform is to be used to further develop wealth management in Switzerland as a strategic industry. This is intended to diversify the Swiss financial center by reintroducing existing business guidelines and compensating for declining sectors. Wealth management will also develop into a fully-fledged pillar of the financial center and the Swiss economy for private customer business and customer-oriented investment banking.

    Swiss banks
    At the beginning of 2008, there were 327 registered and licensed banks and securities dealers in Switzerland. The companies on this list are diverse and include the two big banks as well as numerous smaller banks. Click here to view our Swiss bank catalogue.

  • Banks in BulgariaDatum04.11.2022 10:49
    Thema von GibsonJack im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    Confidus Solutions list of banks in Bulgaria contains 5 banks.

    You have several options for bank account opening in each one of the banks listed below.

    Select a bank
    Allianz Bank Bulgaria
    Development Bank
    Societe Generale
    Piraeus Bank Bulgaria
    Eurobank Bulgaria

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